FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE HIP IN ATHLETES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW FOR RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
The purpose of this article that was published in IJSPT was to review the literature for reliability and validity of functional performance tests used with a young, athletic population with hip dysfunction. Four functional movement tests showed validity: deep squat, single leg squat, single leg balance, and star excursion balance test. Some very interesting points were concluded after review of the recent literature.
- The evidence for validity suggests that gluteal tendinopathy and function of the hip abductors may be assessed with the single-leg stance test, single-leg squat test and SEBT.
- Provocation of pain during 30-seconds of single leg stance had high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97.3%) in detecting tendinopathy of the gluteus medius and minimus confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
- The deep squat test was performed on subjects with radiologically confirmed FAI. The maximal squat depth in subjects with FAI (41% of leg length) was significantly less when compared to healthy controls (32% of leg length). Clinicians may test maximum squat depth in patients with suspected FAI to help confirm a diagnosis of FAI.
- The FMS™ is an intriguing tool for patients with varied hip dysfunction as it tests multiple movement patterns that require different components of hip ROM, strength, and trunk control.
- Hop tests have also shown ability to discriminate injured from uninjured lower extremities, particularly in the assessment of ankle instability and post-operatively following ACL reconstruction. Researchers have established normative, gender-specific values for hop tests in young, athletic subjects. These values may serve as benchmarks that may be helpful in interpreting an “abnormal” score for a subject with hip-related dysfunction.
- The deep squat and single-leg stance test demonstrated evidence of validity in a population of patients with hip-related dysfunction.
- The SEBT and single-leg squat test provided evidence of validity through an analysis of kinematics and muscle function in healthy subjects.
What can we take away from this? Simple balance tests like single leg balance can be effective at helping determine potential hip tendinopathy. Furthermore, including deep squat and single leg stance should be part of our hip evaluations.